Financial Terms “V”

Here is a glossary of financial terms V. These financial terms begin with the letter V, including Vanguard, vertical analysis, and VLOOKUP.


The Vanguard Group, Inc. (Vanguard) is a registered investment advisor and the largest mutual fund provider. Vanguard is a leader in low-cost index investing.

John C. Bogle founded Vanguard and made the first index fund available to the investing public.

Vanguard 500 Index Fund

The Vanguard 500 Index Fund (VFIAX) is the first index fund created for investors. It is a S&P 500 index fund that allows diversification at a low cost.

VFIAX tracks the S&P 500 with an expense ratio of 0.04%

Vertical analysis

Vertical analysis is a technique that examines the components of a number. It is shown as a percentage. For example, on the income statement, sales are 100%, and everything is deducted from sales.

On the balance sheet, total assets are 100%, and all the assets are components of that number. Vertical analysis is also called common-size analysis.


See Vanguard 500 Index Fund.


VLOOKUP is an Excel function that retrieves data from a specific column in a table. VLOOKUP supports approximate and exact matching, and wildcards (* ?) for partial matches.

The “V” stands for “vertical”. Lookup values must appear in the first column of the table, with lookup columns to the right.

See Financial Terms Dictionary

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