Financial Terms “U V W”

Financial Terms Dictionary


Uncollectible account

An accounts payable or notes payable that is unlikely to be collected from a customer. An uncollectible account is also called a bad debt or a doubtful account.

Unearned revenue

Payment received in advance of providing a good or service. Revenue is recognized when the product or service is provided.

Useful life

Useful life is the typical service life of a fixed asset. For example, a truck may have a 5-year useful life.

Vertical analysis

Vertical analysis is a technique that examines the components of a number. It is shown as a percentage. For example, on the income statement, sales is 100% and everything is deducted from sales.

On the balance sheet, total assets are 100% and all the assets are components of that number. Vertical analysis is also called common-size analysis.


VLOOKUP is an Excel function that retrieves data from a specific column in a table in Excel. VLOOKUP supports approximate and exact matching, and wildcards (* ?) for partial matches.

The “V” stands for “vertical”. Lookup values must appear in the first column of the table, with lookup columns to the right.

W-2 Form

A W-2 Form is an Internal Revenue Service (IRS) form for reporting salaries, wages, or tips. A 1099 form is for reporting income other than salaries, wages, and tips.

Windows key

The Windows Logo Key is a special keyboard key on Windows keyboards. It is on the left of the keyboard below the letter “Z.” The Windows key was introduced in 1994 as a modifier key for the Windows 95 operating system.

If a Windows keyboard is used with a Mac, the Windows key functions as the Command ⌘ symbol in macOS.

Windows key
Windows Logo Key

Working capital

Working capital, or net working capital, is one of the liquidity ratios. It measures current assets minus the current liabilities. Assets and liabilities are shown on a company’s balance sheet.

The formula is Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities.

Jeff Mankin

Jeff Mankin teaches financial literacy. His website is

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